The Earth and any other spatial body, as well as satellites and astronauts in orbit, are exposed to cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays Theory Cosmic rays are energetic particles coming from outer space. • Open Problems [3,4].
Milagro , IceCube , and the Tibet-III air shower array  have observed anisotropy at the level of about 10−3 for cosmic rays with energy of a few TeV, possibly due to nearby sources. • Cosmic Ray (Magneto)Hydrodynamics!
• Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays: Extragalactic Sources! 30.Cosmicrays 3 Figure 30.1: Fluxes of nuclei of the primary cosmic radiation in particles per energy-per-nucleus are plotted vs energy-per-nucleus using data from Refs. • Galactic: Shock Acceleration in Supernovae!
• The Physical Origin of Cosmic Rays! Secondary cosmic rays are what we measure. • Applications: Galaxies & Clusters!
Cosmic rays are nearly isotropic at most energies due to diﬀusive propagation in the galactic magnetic ﬁeld. Above: Schematic … Abundances of hydrogen and helium are from Refs. Milagro , IceCube , and the Tibet-III air shower December 1, 2017 09:36.
Outline • An Overview of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy! Cosmic rays are nearly isotropic at most energies due to diﬀusive propagation in the galactic magnetic ﬁeld. These cosmic rays are hitting Earth's atmosphere, creating a spray of secondary cosmic rays that shower toward the ground below.
The oxygen ﬂux at kinetic energy of 10.6 GeV/nucleon is 3.29× 10−2 (m2 s sr GeV/nucleon)−1. • The Conﬁnement of Cosmic Rays !
28.Cosmicrays 3 Table 28.1: Relative abundances F of cosmic-ray nuclei at 10.6 GeV/nucleon nor-malized to oxygen (≡ 1) .
Radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV, similar to what you get from medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners. The cosmic rays nature is very diverse (the kinetic energy of the particles of cosmic rays is distributed over fourteen orders of magnitude), as well as Note that one can not use these values to extend the cosmic-ray